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The listings in the biographical dictionary referred to overleaf are the entries currently in the section of the Marquis National Biographee Reference File which is involved. All so entered, and therefore Marquis biographees, have been selected under standards based on Marquis' 50 years - and more - of experience in compiling reference dictionaries. Those sketched in any issuance are selected by compilers applying the following factors, among others: mechanical limitations fixed by available space; content adjustments found to be required to secure the desired coverage balance; their estimate of actual or probable subjectivity to reference interest, sufficiently widespread to create reference demand within the area and resulting from activity in a reputable field of endeavor; and their evaluation of biographees' interest in data being of published record currently. Initiative on the part of selected biographees is not a consideration, nor their desires to be, or not to be, entered as biographees in the Biographee File, although their cooperation in supplying and checking data, in order to assure file accuracy of advantage to them and all concerned, is sought and appreciated. Whether or not such cooperation is forthcoming, all those selected and considered by the Editors to be subject to a requisite degree of reference interest under the selective standards prescribed for their use, are entered in the Biographee File. It follows both that an entry felt to be necessary in the service of reference adequacy is in no way optional with the selected biographee and that no consideration - purchase of the volume; monetary, economic, or political influence of any type or degree - other than the Editors' evaluation of the factor of actual or probable subjectivity to reference interest under the prescribed standards, can affect an entry. More complete details regarding qualifications for entry in the National Biographee File will be gladly supplied by the Editors on request.


Since the Editors' evaluation of subjectivity to reference interest is the determinative factor in the selection of entries for the National Biographee File, it likewise is the deciding consideration in respect to revisions and deletions. File entries are dropped or transferred to the inactive classification principally according to the Editors' estimate of current subjectivity to reference interest, or incidence of the other factors mentioned, and therefore no other meaning should be attached to such revisions. However, if a biographee does not furnish an address to which requests for current data may be sent, or fails to supply current information from which Editors may judge the degree of subjectivity to reference interest involved, a transfer in the File to the inactive classification is in the majority of instances to be expected. Inactive data may be so noted and then ultimately permanently indexed
as non-current in the File.


As indicated above, the purpose of this biographical dictionary is to serve a more serious reference interest in men and women of achievement who either reside in, or follow vocations and professions in, the area involved.

Since there are instances of worthwhile accomplishments not being subject to more than local reference interest, and as well ones of outstanding life records not being considered particularly noteworthy locally, the reasons for all entries in the National Biographee File may well not be at all self-evident. However, in respect to all, the answer to but one query has been considered: "What is the comparative probability that some reference inquiry may arise in connection with this biographee, or that some constructive user of biographical data - such as a function committee head, a newspaperman, a researcher, a writer, a business man or a trade-paper editor - may seek biographical facts about him or her?" The uses of this biographical dictionary and the other Marquis compilations in the private library, and for individual or organizational service, are both many and well known because of demonstrated effectiveness, but they are also obviously dependent upon the constant consideration of this basic factor of reference utility.
Please note that the language and terminology used in this collection reflects the context and culture of the time of its creation, and may include culturally sensitive information. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution, but is available in its original form to facilitate research. For questions or comments regarding sensitive content, access, and use related to this collection, please contact