Viewing page 5 of 98

Alphabet
Vowels-- 
[[begin first table]]
[[first column]]
ɑ: as a in father
ɔ: as a in hall
ē ″ e ″ épée
ī " i " marine
ō " o in note
ū " u " rule (ōō)
ø   eu  peur
[[second column]]
[[underline]]æ[[/underline]] as a in [[underline]]fat[[/underline]]
ă as a in what
ĕ ″ e ″ pen
ĭ ″ i ″ pin
ŏ o in bother
ŭ u in " put, pull
ʌ u " hut
[[end first table]]

Dipthongs 
[[begin second table]]
[[first column]]
ɑi i in fire
ɔi oi in boil
ĭu u in pure
[[second column]]
ɑu ou rout
[[end second table]]

Nasals. 
[[begin third table]]
[[first column]]
[[tilde "ɑ"]], ã, ẽ, ĩ, õ, ũ, [[tilde "ʊ"]] - are equivalent to the French & Portugeuse nasal sounds, as, sang, on, un, bem, sim, irmãa, etc.
[[second column]]
ŋ is the English & German nasal sound, as heard in sing, song, klang, enge, etc.
[[end third table]]

Consonants. 
[[begin fourth table]]
[[across both columns]]
b, d, f, h, k, l, m, n
p, r, t, v, w, y, z   } As in English.

[[first column]]
ʃ as sh in shall
g always hard as in get
ɣ Greek & German guttural
ð as th in this
[[second column]]
ʒ as z in seizure
s always sibilant as in sour
χ Greek & Spanish guttural
θ as th in thin
[[end fourth table]]

Double Consonants 
[[begin fifth table]]
[[first column]]
tʃ as ch in chest
[[second column]]
dʒ  as j in join.
[[end fifth table]]

Transcription Notes:
*DISCUSSION OF PHONETIC SYMBOL SUBSTITUTIONS* ---- Some of the symbols used in this document do not have type-able versions so I have tried to substitute modern equivalents. If you disagree with a substitution, please explain your opinion in this note box and wait for a discussion of the subject before changing subsequent pages. --J.Proctor *DISCUSSION OF MEANING FOR STRESS MARK/DIACRITIC* ---- In addition to the character substitutions above, there has been some disagreement over what the straight single quote or apostrophe which follows many letters throughout the document represents. Based on some of the letters it appears after/above in the document, general rules for pronunciation of African languages, and the age of this document, I believe these to be stress marks which follow the stressed syllable. If you disagree, please contribute to a discussion of the subject in this box before changing it on subsequent pages. --J.Proctor

Please note that the language and terminology used in this collection reflects the context and culture of the time of its creation, and may include culturally sensitive information. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution, but is available in its original form to facilitate research. For questions or comments regarding sensitive content, access, and use related to this collection, please contact transcribe@si.edu.