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GEOGRAPHICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLES --- NO. I.
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SURFACE OF THE EARTH.
The surface of the earth consists of unequal portions of land and water: the area of the former to that of the latter being nearly 1 to 3.  The land in the Northern Hemisphere greatly predominates over that in the Southern; if we consider the whole to be divided into 100 equal parts, that in the first will be represented by 78 such parts, and that in the other by 22.

The solid portions of the earth's surface consist of a number of detached sections, or islands, each being surrounded by water.  The two larger masses are, for the sake of distinction, termed Continents; of which one is the Eastern, and the other the Western.  If the whole were divided as before into 100 equal parts, the two continents would be represented by 82 parts, and the Islands, by 18; or, in other words, the continental portion is about 4 1/2 times more extensive than the insular.

The terms Eastern and Western, in this case, refer to Ferro, one of the Canary Islands, and the westernmost land known to the ancients.  Immediately after the discovery of America, the geographers of that age, in compiling their maps of the world, adopted the meridian of Ferro as the line of separation between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres.  Ferro was then believed to be in longitude 20˚ west from Greenwich; but it is now known to be some distance eastward of that meridian.

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PRINCIPAL ISLANDS,
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AMERICA.
                | Square miles.
Newfoundland..... 46,200
Cuba............. 42,000
Iceland.......... 30,000
Hayti............ 29,000
Vancouver Island.. 13,500

EUROPE.
Great Britain..... 87,000
Ireland........... 32,000
Sicily............ 10,500
Sardinia.......... 9,300

ASIA.
Niphon........... 100,000
Jesso............ 62,600
Saghalien........ 47,000
Kiusiu........... 28,300
Sikof............ 21,200

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ASIA - Continued.
Square Miles
Ceylon.......25,000
Formosa......15,000

AFRICA.
Madagascar ....225,000
Socotra..........1,000

OCEANICA.
Australia...........3,120,000
Borneo................300,000
Papua, or New Guinea..260,000
Samatra...............150,000
New Zealand............95,000
Celebes................70,000
Luzon..................58,000
Java...................50,000
Mindanao...............35,000
Van Diemon's Land......28,000
Hawaii..................4,000

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MOUNTAINS.

Mountains are classed according to their height in feet above the level of the sea. Those of the lowest class rank from 2,000 to 10,000 feet;those of the second, from 10,000 to 20,000; and those of the first class, from 20,000 upwards. Elevations under 2000 feet are commonly denominated hills.

For many years, Mount Dhawalageri, one of the Himalaya range, was regarded as the culminating point of the globe; but in the year 1847, Kunchinginga, an adjacent peak, was ascertained to be 176 feet higher. Chimborazo was long considered the tallest peak of the Andes; but in 1838, Sorato and Illimani, in Bolivia, were measured, and reported to be several feet higher. Subsequently, however, it was found that an error in computing their elevation, greater than the alleged difference, was committed. Aconcagua, a volcano in the Chilian Andes, is now regarded as the most elevated point of the on the Western Continent. 

The snow line, or line of perpetual congelation on mountains, is that part of the surface where the temperature is always at the freezing point; here the snow commences, and envelopes all the upper portions in a continual wintry covering. Under the Equator, the snow line is estimated at from 15,750 to 16,000 feet above the level of the sea; thence towards either pole, it gradually descends until it reaches the surface of the earth, which, in the Northern Hemisphere, occurs at about latitude 80˚, and in the Southern at a somewhat lower parallel. The snow line is not in all cases uniform; it differs considerably, from local causes, in equal latitudes, and even on opposite sides of the same range of mountains. In latitude 30˚ it is estimated at about 12,000 in 40˚ at 9000, and in 60˚ at 5,000 feet above the level of the sea.

Heights of the principal Mountains in the World
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NORTH AMERICA                                                                    Feet.
Mount St.Elias,Russian America..........................17,800
Popocatapetl,Mexico.............................................17,735
Mount Brown, Rocky Mountains.........................16,000
Sierra Nevada, or Snowy Range of California...............15,500
Mount Hood, Oregon Territory..............................14,000
Fremont's Peak, Rocky Mountains........................13,470
Long's Peak,         do.       .................................12,500
Cibao Mountains, Hayti..............................8,000
Sierra del Cobre, Cuba...............................7,200
Black Mountain, highest of the Blue Ridge, North Carolina..............6,470
Mt. Washington, White Mountains, New Hampshire................6,231
Mount Tahawus, or Marcy, New York............................5,300

SOUTH AMERICA
Aconcagua, Chili..........................................23,100
Chimborazo, Ecuador.......................................21,420
Sorato, Bolivia...........................................21,288
Chuquibamba, Peru.........................................21,000
Tolima, New Grenada.......................................18,200
Cerro de Potosi, Bolivia..................................16,150
Organ Mountains, Brazil....................................7,000

EUROPE
Elbrus, the highest of the Caucasus Mts, Russia...........17,776
Mont Blanc, highest of the Alps...........................16,068
Mulhacen, highest of the Sierra Nevada, Spain.............11,678
Mount Maladetta, highest of the Pyrenees..................11,400
Monte Corno, or Cavallo, highest of the Apennines.........10,154

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[[begin footnote section of first column]]
Questions. What is said of the surface of the earth? The solid portions? Continents? How much does the continental exceed the insular portion? Which is the largest Island in the world? Which division embraces the greatest number of large islands? What is said of mountains? Hills? Of Mount Dhawalageri? Kunchinginga? Chimborazo? So-
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Heights of Mountains, continued. 
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EUROPE--Continued.                                          Feet.
Mount Scardus, highest of Balkan Mts., Turkey.............10,000
Mount Ruska Poyana, highest of the Carpathian Mts..........9,912
Mount Skagtlos Find. highest of Dofrafield Mts.............8,070
Konjakofski Kamen, Ural Mts................................5,397
Ben Nevis highest of the Grampian Mts., Scotland...........4,365
Snowdon, highest mountain in Wales.........................3,571
Macgillicuddy's Reeks, highest mountain in Ireland.........3,404

ASIA.
Kunchinginga, Himalaya Mts................................28,176
Dhawalaghiri        do.   ................................28,000
Hindoo Koo, or Koosh, Cabul...............................20,000
Mount Ararat, Turkey in Asia..............................17,210
Mount Lebamon, Syria, Jeb-el Makmel.......................12,000
Mount Olympus, Turkey in Asia..............................9,100
Mount Sinai, Arabia........................................7,497

AFRICA.
Abba Yarol, Abyssinia.....................................15,200
Piton des Neigres, Isle of Bourbon........................12,300
Talba Waba, Abyssinia.....................................12,000
Mount Milixia[[?]], highest of the Atlas, Morocco.........11,400
Snowy Mountains, Cape Colony..............................10,000
Peak of Pico, Azores.......................................7,618

OCEANICA.
Mount Ophir, Sumatra......................................13,842
Semero Mountain, Island of Java...........................13,000
Mount Otahefte, Georgian Isles.............................10,200
Mount Kosciusko, New South Wales...........................6,600
Mount Humboldt, Van Diemon's Land..........................5,520

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VOLCANOES.
Volcanoes are mountains that are connected with the internal fires evidently existing beneath the surface of the earth, and the which they serve as chimneys, or vents. They are found in every quarter of the globe, from the island of Jan Mayen, in the extremity of the Northern Hemisphere, to Victoria Land, only 12˚ of latitude distant from the South Pole. Until recently, Volcanoes were supposed to exist only in the immediate vicinity of the Ocean; but it is now ascertained that there are several in the very centre of Asia, 1500 miles distant from any part of the sea. The number at present known is 427, of which 270 are active. In America there are 173 volcanoes, in Oceanica 163, in Asia 67, in Africa 17, in Europe 5, and in Victoria Land 2. 

PRINCIPAL ACTIVE VOLCANOES.                                  Feet.
Gualatheri, Peru...........................21,907
Araquipa, or Gugua Putiax, Peru...........................20,325
Antisana, ...............................19,240
Cotopaxi, Ecuador........................19,140
Pichiucha, Ecuador.......................16,000
Kliutchowekaja, Kamtachatka..................15,763
Volcan de Fuego, Central America......................14,000
Mauna Kea, Hawaii, Sandwich Islands......................13,753
St. Helen's, Oregon.......................13,300
Indrapura, Sumatra......................12,300
Peak of Teneriffe, Canary Islands......................12,482
Erebas, Victoria Land.........................12,400
Cartage, Central America......................11,480
Etna, Sicily.................10,874
Hoela, Iceland..............................................5,116
Soufriere, Guadaloupe.......................................5,108
Jorullo, Mexico.............................................4,203
Vesuvias, Naples............................................3,918

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THE OCEAN.
The Sea, or Ocean, is estimated to extend over a space of 150 million square miles, or three-fourths of the surface of the earth. The different parts are distinguished by different names: the most important being the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic Oceans. There are also various Inland Seas, Bays and Gulfs of considerable extent: as the Mediterranean, Baltic, Caribbean and China Seas, the Gulf of Mexico, Hudson's Bay, the Bay of Bengal &c. These are regarded as portions of the oceans with which they are connected 

The [[italics]] Pacific Ocean [[/italics]] is that area of water bounded by America on the one side, and Asia and Australia on the other. Measured on the equator, it extends east and west; 100 degrees of longitude, or about 11,000 miles, varying materially in width in other quarters. From north to south it occupies 126 degrees of latitude, reckoned from about the 60th parallel south the the 66th north, or about 8,700 miles, and has an area estimated at eighty-three million square miles. 

The [[italics]] Atlantic Ocean [[/italics]] occupies the space between Europe and North America, and Africa and South America, with about the same extent north and south as the Pacific. It is more than a third as large as the Pacific, the are being reckoned at 30 million square miles. Both these oceans are divided by the Equator into Northern and Southern. 

The [[italics]] Indian Ocean [[/italics]] extends from Africa to Australia and from the shores of Asia southward to a line supposed to be drawn from the Cape of Good Hope to the southern extremity of Van Diemen's Land. It is about one-fourth the size of the Pacific Ocean, having an area of 21 million square mile.
 
The [[italics]] Arctic or Northern Ocean [[/italics]] includes the basin extending around the North Pole. The [[italics]] Antarctic or Southern Ocean [[/italics]] comprises the tract of sea lying around the South Pole, and southward of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. The Arctic and Antarctic Oceans contain together about a ninth part of the waters on the globe; the first has an area of three million, and the other thirteen million square miles. 

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LAKES.
Lakes are found in all quarters of the globe, but are more numerous in North American than elsewhere. The water of lakes is generally fresh; in a few instances it is salt, but varying in degree, being some-

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[[begin footnote section of second column]]
[[continued from footnote section of first column]] rato? Aconcagua? Which division of the Western Continent has the highest mountains? Of the Eastern Continent? Which is the highest mountain south of the equator? An. Which is the highest insular mountain shown in the table? Or. What is said of volcanoes? Where are they found? How many are now known? Active? How many in America, &c.? In what country is the highest volcano? The highest
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times only slightly saline or brackish.  The Caspian and Aral, with some other lakes, are usually called seas from their superior dimensions, and from their waters being salt, like those of the ocean.
In elevation and depression of level, also, lakes differ essentially.  Among those remarkable for elevation of surface, are Lake Superior, 600 feet; the Lake of Brient, 1,900; the Great Salt Lake, 4,200; and Lake Titicaca, 12,795 feet above the level of the sea.  Among the most conspicuous of the depressed or sunken lakes are the Caspian, Aral, and Dead Seas; the two former being sunk to the depth of about 83 or 84 feet each, and the latter to the depth of 1312 feet, below the level of the Mediterranean.
Salt lakes have no outlet to the ocean; and, though they all receive fresh-water streams, yet, from the constant solar evaporation, their waters remain unchanged.

ESTIMATED AREAS OF SOME OF THE PRINCIPAL LAKES.
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[[First column]]
Sq. miles.
Caspian Sea..........145,000
Sea of Aral..........20,000
Lake Superior..........31,500
Lake Michigan..........23,150
Lake Huron..........23,100
Lake Baikal..........14,000
Great Slave Lake..........11,500

[[Second column]]
Sq. miles.
Lake Erie..........7,800
Lake Ontario..........6,900
Lake Winnipeg..........6,500
Lake Ladoga..........6,190
Lake Nicaragua..........4,000
Lake Titicaca..........4,000
Great Salt Lake..........1,875

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RIVERS.
Rivers may be classed either according to their length or course, or according to the extent of country drained by their waters.  Regarded in the first point of view, the Mississippi, including its principal tributary, holds the highest rank; but if according to the second, the Amazon takes decided precedence of all other streams.
From the head of the Missouri, which rises on the east side of the Rocky Mountains, to the Balixe[[?]] at the mouth of the Mississippi, the entire stream, measured so as to include all its windings, is, according to one account, 4350, and, by another, about 4100 miles.  But if estimated by the length of the valley, omitting all except the chief bends, the extent is not less than 2600 miles; being, in either case, the longest river in the world.  The Amazon in South America and the Obe in Asia, each water valleys about 2300 miles in length, estimated so as to exclude the smaller windings.  The basin or region drained by the Amazon and its tributaries, being the entire region enclosed by a line connecting the sources of all its branches, is estimated at 2,160,000 square miles, a tract of country equal to two-thirds the extent of Europe.  The Obe, estimated in the same matter, drains a basin of 1,260,000 square miles; and the Mississippi and Missouri, a basin of 1,100,000 square miles in extent.

Lengths of the Principal Rivers in the World.
NORTH AMERICA.
Missouri, to its junction with the Mississippi..........2,900
do. to the sea, forming the longest river in the world..........4,100
Mississippi proper..........2,800
Mackenzie's..........2,500
St. Lawrence..........2,200
Rio Grande..........1,800
Nelson and Saskatchewan..........1,600
Columbia..........1,300
Colorado, of California..........1,100
Brazos, Colorado of Texas..........600
Alabama..........600
Apalachicola and Chattahoochee..........550
Susquehanna, Potomac, James, Roanoke, Savannah..........500
St. John's of New Brunswick, Connecticut, Great Potec, Trinity..........450
Great Whale, Delaware, Alatamaha, Sacramento..........400
Penobscot, Hudson, Cape Fear, Pearl, Nueces, Sabine..........330
Severn, Kennebec..........300

SOUTH AMERICA.
Amazon..........3,600
Rio de la Plata..........2,250
Orinoco..........1,500
St. Francisco..........1,300
Tocantins and Araguny..........1,100
Colorado..........1,000
Magdalena, Parnaiba..........900

EUROPE.
Volga..........2,000
Danube..........1,000
Don, Dnieper..........1,000
Rhine..........950
Dwina..........700
Petchora, Elbe, Loire..........600
Vistula, Tagus..........550
Dniester, Guadiana..........500
Oder, Douro, Rhone, Po, Seine..........450
Mezene, Desna, Bog, Guadalquivir..........400
Duna, Niemen, Ebro..........350
Dahl, Bug, Weser, Garonne..........300
Thames..........233

ASIA.
Yang-tse-kiang..........2,800
Lena..........2,600
Obe, Hoang-Ho..........2,500
Yenesei..........2,300
Amoor..........2,200
Cambodia..........2,000
Indus, Irrawaddy, each..........1,700
Ganges..........1,600
Brahmapootra..........1,500
Euphrates..........1,400
Amoo, or Oxus, and Salwen..........900
Tigris, Nerbuddah, Melusin..........800

AFRICA.
Nile..........3,000
Niger or Jolita..........2,600
Senegal..........1,200
Orange..........1,000
Gambia..........700

OCEANICA.
Murray..........1,900

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[[begin footnote section of third column]]
[[continued from footnote section of second column]]
in the Eastern Hemisphere?  Is Aconcagua north or south of the Equator? What is said of the sea, or ocean? The Pacific? Atlantic? Indian? Arctic, &c.?  What is said of lakes?  Of the Caspian, &c.?  Of elevation, &c.?  Depressed lakes?  Which is the largest salt lake?  The largest fresh-water lake?  How are rivers classified?  What is said of the Mississippi?  Amazon?  Ole? 
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[[Start page]]
^[[3]]
GEOGRAPHICAL AND STATISTICAL TABLES -- NO. II.
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EXTENT AND POPULATION
OF THE
DIFFERENT COUNTRIES IN THE WORLD.
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[[Begin sub-columns 2-5 headers]]Areas in sq. miles.  Total population.  Pop total. sq. mile.  When numbered.[[/End sub-columns 2-5 headers]]
[[Begin table section]]NORTH AMERICA.
[[Begin columnar entries - period delimited]]
Russian America.  450,000.  54,142.  1 in 7. 1846.
Danish " [[ditto for: America]].  750,000. 80,000.  1 in 9.  " [[ditto for: 1846]]
British  " [[ditto for: America]].  2,816,700.  2,551,000.  4 in 5.  1852.  
United States.  3,023,400.  23,191,876.  8.  1850.
Mexico, including Yucatan.  668,000.  7,137,972.  11.  1843.
Central America.  199,819.  2,141,097.  11.  1845.
Hayti {Empire of Hayti }
      {Republic of Dominica}.  [[combined]] 29,000.  [[Empire]] 800,00 [[RD]] 150,000.  [[combined]] 45.  " [[ditto for: 1845]].
Cuba (Spanish).  42,383.  1,247,000.  [[combined with "Porto Rico" below]] 25.  1850.
Porto Rico. do. [[ditto for: (Spanish)]] 3,805. 420,000. [[combined with "Cuba (Spanish)" above]] 25.  " [[ditto for: 1850]]
Jamaica (British).  5,468.  379,000.  [[ combined with the subsequent 24 nations]] 70.  1848.  
Trinidad.  do.  2,009. 59,814. [[ combined with the previous nation and subsequent 23 nations]] 70. " [[ditto for: 1848]].
Barbados.  do.  166.  135,289. [[combined with the previous 2 and subsequent 22 nations]] 70. 1851.
Grenada, &c.  do.  138.  28,923. [[combined with the previous 3 and subsequent 21 nations]] 70.  1842.
St. Vincent.  do.  131.  27,248. [[combined with the previous 4 and subsequent 20 nations]] 70.  1846.
Tobago.  do.  99.  13,208. [[combined with the previous 5 and subsequent 19 nations]] 70.   1844.
St. Lucia.  do.  300.  23,583. [[combined with the previous 6 and subsequent 18 nations]] 70. 1851.
Antigua.  do.  168.  36,300. [[combined with the previous 7 and subsequent 17 nations]] 70. 1836.
Montserrat.  do.  43.  7,365. [[combined with the previous 8 and subsequent 16 nations]] 70.  1850.
St. Christopher.  do.  68.  23,133.[[combined with the previous 9 and subsequent 15 nations]] 70.  " [[ditto for: 1850]].
Nevis.  do.  20.  10,200. [[combined with the previous 10 and subsequent 14 nations]] 70.  1851.
Virgin Islands.  do.  137.  9,000.[[combined with the previous 11 and subsequent 13 nations]] 70.  1842.  
Angullia.  do.  35.  2,934. [[combined with the previous 12 and subsequent 12 nations]] 70.  1842.  
Dominica.  do.  291.  22,200. [[combined with the previous 13 and subsequent 11 nations]] 70.  1851. 
Babxina Islands [[?]]. do.  5,424.  25,292.[[ combined with the previous 14 and subsequent 10 nations]]70.  " [[ditto marks denote "1851"]].
Bermuda Islands.  do.  20.  11,602.[[ combined with the previous 15 and subsequent 9 nations]]70.  " [[ditto marks denote "1851"]].
Guadeloupe, c. (French).  615.  127,574.[[ combined with the previous 16 and subsequent 8 nations]]70.  [[no date]].  
Martinique.  do.  322.  117,906.[[ combined with the previous 17 and subsequent 7 nations]]70.  1847.  
St. Martin's (Dutch and French).  32.  6,500.[[ combined with the previous 18 and subsequent 6 nations]]70.  " [[ditto marks denote "1847"]].
Curacoa, &c. do.  255.  18,684.  [[ combined with the previous 19 and subsequent 5 nations]]70.  " [[ditto marks denote "1847"]].
St. Eustatius.  do.  190.  1,903. [[ combined with the previous 20 and subsequent 4 nations]]70.  " [[ditto marks denote "1847"]]. 
Santa Cruz, (Danish).  105.  35,000.[[ combined with the previous 21 and subsequent 3 nations]]70.  " [[ditto marks denote "1847"]]. 
St. Thomas.  do.  43.  12,850.[[ combined with the previous 22 andsubsequent 2 nations]]70.  " [[ditto marks denote "1847"]].
St. John's.  do.  42.  3,000.[[ combined with the previous 23 and subsequent nation]]70.  " [[ditto marks denote "1847"]].
St. Bartholomew's (Swedish).  25.  9,000.[[ combined with the previous 24 nations]]70.  " [[ditto marks denote "1847"]].
[[line after number values denotes total area in sq. miles.]]
7,979,372
[[line after number values denotes total population.]]
38,766,634
[[line after number values denotes total population per sq. miles.]]
5
[[no value listed for "When numbered" column]]
[[End columnar entries]]
[[End table section]]

[[Begin table section]]SOUTH AMERICA.  
[[Begin columnar entries - period delimited]]

Venezuela, inc. Margarita.  410,000.  945,247.  2.  1830.
New Granada.  457,180.  1,686,000.  4.  1838.  
Ecuador.  269,000.  600,000.  1839.
Bolivia.  480,000.  1,000,000.  2.  "  [[ditto marks denote "1839"]]
Peru.  549,000.  1,400,000.  2.  1848.  
Chili.  170,000.  1,250,000.  7.  1842.  
Buenos Ayres. 820,000. 1,600,000.  2.  1841.  
Uruguay.  70,000.  250,000.  4.  " [[ditto marks denote "1830"]]
Paraguay.  74,000.  270,438.  4.  1830.
Brazil.  2,724,000.  7,050,000.  3. 1843.
British Guiana.  86,000.  127,005.  1.  1851.
Dutch Guiana.  48,000.  53,821.  1.  1839
French Guiana.  35,000.  21,170.  1.  [[no date]]
Patagonia and adjacent islands.  320,000.  120,000.  [[fraction?]] in 2 1/2.  [[no date]]
[[line after number values denotes total area in sq. miles.]]
6,512,190
[[line after number values denotes total population.]]
16,301,371
[[line after number values denotes total population per sq. miles.]]
2 1/2
[[no value listed for "When numbered" column]]
[[End columnar entries]]
[[End table section]]

[[Begin table section]]EUROPE.
[[Begin columnar entries - period delimited]]

Sweden and Norway.  252,440.  4,762,274.  16.  1849.
Russia (in Europe).  2,095,000.  60,417,000.  29.  1840.  
Denmark, inc.*Holst'n and Lauren.  21,500.  2,296,597.  
Netherlands, inc. pt.  *Lux. and Lita.  13,390.  3267635.  105.  1850.  
Belgium.  '' '' '' [[ditto marks denote "inc. pt.  *Lux. and Lita."]]  11,313.  4,357,090.  385, 1849
Great Britain and Ireland.  448,948.  27,619,[[?]].  232.  1851.  
France.  293,738.  35,781,628.  174.  1851. 
Spain, including Andorra.  176,670.  14,223,219.  81.  1849.
Portugal.  34,500.  3,412,500.  99.  1841.
*Austria, inc. Lombardy and Venice.  257,830.  37,358,456.  145.  1851.
*Prussia, inc. Hohenzollern, Pr.&c.  107,300.  16,316,625.  152.  1849.
*Bavaria.  28,435.  4,599,515.  159.  1850.  
*Wirtemberg.  7,558.  1,502,232.[[ combined with the subsequent 28 nations]]192.  1850.  
*Hanover.  14,000.  1,758,847.  [[ combined with the subsequent 27 nations]]192.  1848.
*Saxony.  5,795.  1,894,431.[[ combined with the subsequent 26 nations and the previous 2 nations]]192.  1849.
*Baden.  5,742.  1,382,774.  [[ combined with the subsequent 25 nations and the previous 3 nations]]192.  1849.  
*Hesse-Cassel.  4,450.  754,290.  [[ combined with the subsequent 24 nations and the previous 4 nations]]192.  1846.
*Hesse-Darmstadt.  3,761.  252,324.[[ combined with the subsequent 23 nations and the previous 5 nations]]192.  1849.
*Hesse-Homburg.  236.  24,293.  [[ combined with the subsequent 22 nations and the previous 6 nations]]192.  1846.  
*Saxe-Welmar-Eisenach.  1,403. 274,370.  [[ combined with the subsequent 21 nations and the previous 7 nations]]192.  1851.  
*Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.  799.  149,753.  [[ combined with the subsequent 20 nations and the previous 8 nations]]192.  1842. 
*Saxe-Altenbearg.  491.  131,780.  [[ combined with the subsequent 19 nations and the previous 9 nations]]192.  1850.   
*Saxe-Meiningen-Hillburghauren.  968.  163,323.  [[ combined with the subsequent 18 nations and the previous 10 nations]]192.  1849.  
*Brunswick.  1,525.  268,943.  [[ combined with the subsequent 17 nations and the previous 11 nations]]192.  1846.  
*Mecklenburg-Schwerin.  4,701.  543,328.  [[ combined with the subsequent 16 nations and the previous 12 nations]]192.  1851. 
*Mecklenburg-Strelitz.  901.  96,292.  [[ combined with the subsequent 15 nations and the previous 13 nations]]192. 1848.
*Oldenburg, including Kulphsusen.  2,470. 278,020.  [[ combined with the subsequent 14 nations and the previous 14 nations]]192.  1851.
*Nassau.  1,735.  428,218.  [[ combined with the subsequent 13 nations and the previous 15 nations]]192. 1851.  
*Anhalt-Dossau.  519.  85,200.  [[ combined with the subsequent 12 nations and the previous 16 nations]]192. 1849.    
*Anhalt-Bernburg.  498.  71,971.  [[ combined with the subsequent 11 nations and the previous 17 nations]]192.  1850.  
Schwartzburg-Sondersbausen.  358.  66,002.  [[ combined with the subsequent 10 nations and the previous 18 nations]]192.  1840.  
*Schwartzburg-Rudolstadt.  403.  69,650.  [[ combined with the subsequent 9 nations and the previous 19 nations]]192.  1849.  
*Lichtenstein.  52.  6,351.  [[ combined with the subsequent 8 nations and the previous 20 nations]]192.  1842.    
*Reuse-Greitz.  130.  34,800.  [[ combined with the subsequent 7 nations and the previous 21 nations]]192.  1845. 
*Reuse-Schleitz.  438.  77,375.  [[ combined with the subsequent 6 nations and the previous 22 nations]]192.  1845.  
*Lippe-Dotmold and L. Schauenb'g.  650.  133,461.  [[ combined with the subsequent 5 nations and the previous 23 nations]]192.  1840.  
*Waldeck.  455.  58,219.  [[ combined with the subsequent 4 nations and the previous 24 nations]]192.  1850.  
*Frankfort.  91.  70,244.  [[ combined with the subsequent 3 nations and the previous 25 nations]]192.  1849. 
*Lubeck.  142.  47,742.  [[ combined with the subsequent 2 nations and the previous 26 nations]]192.  1841.  
*Bremen.  412.  79,047.  [[ combined with the subsequent nation and the previous 27 nations]]192.  1849.   
*Hamburg.  149.  188,054.  [[ combined with  the previous 28 nations]]192. [[no date]].  
Switzerland.  25,251.  2,390,446.  156.  1850.  
Italy. excl.  Lombardy and Venice.  100,439.  19,365,032.  193.  [[no date]].
Ionian Islands.  1,097.  399,000.  209.  1852.  
Greece.  18,241.  998,265.  55.  1851.
Montenegro.  450.  100,000.  222.  1850.  
Turkey.  189,470.  15,509,000.  87.  1844.  
[[line across sub-columns 2-4 denotes totals for each category]]
[[area in sq. miles]] 3,757,950.  [[total population]] 235,395,448.  [[population/ sq. mile]] 70.  [[no total given for "When numberred"]]
*Germanic Confederation. [[notes meaning of "*" from previous 29 countries]]
[[End columnar entries]]
[[End table section]]
[[line across entire left column]]

[[Begin footnote section of first column]]
Questions - Which country in North America contains the greatest number of square miles?  Which is the next in size?  The next?  Which has the largest population? The smallest? The largest population to the square mile?  The least?  Repeat these questions
[[/end footnote section of first column. Note: continued in footnote section of second column.]]

[[second column, middle of the page]]
Table of Extent and Population continued.
[[line across column]]
[[Begin table with 5 sub-columns]]
[[Begin sub-columns 2-5 headers]]Areas in sq. miles.  Total population.  Pop total. sq. mile.  When numbered.[[/End sub-columns 2-5 headers]]

[[Begin table section]]ASIA.  
[[Begin columnar entries - period delimited]]
Asiatic Russia, inc. Georgia &c.  5,336,000.  4,532,056.  1/2.  1846.  
Independent Tartary.  790,000.  6,590,000.  8.  [[no date]].
Turkey.  Syria and Palenstine.  437,000.  [[Turkey]]8,000,000.  [[Syrai and Palestine]] 2,000,000  21.  est.  
Arabia.  1,200,000.  8,000,000.  6.  " [[ditto marks denote "est."]]
Persia.  470,000.  9,000,000.  29.  [[no date]].  
Afghanistan.  3000,000.  6,000,000.  29.  [[no date]].
Beloochistan.  150,000.  1,500,000.  10.
Hindoostan and Ceylon.  1,250,000.  130,000,000.  104.
Anam (Farther India).  350,000.  9,000,000.  [[?]][[no date]].
Birmah (Farther India).  254,000.  5,350,000.  23.  [[no date]].  
British Birmah (Farther India).  77,000.  1,400,000.  18.  [[no date]].  
Siam (Farther India). 184,000.  3,800,000. 24. [[no date]].
Malsoca[[?]] (Farther India).  55,000.  450,000.  9.  [[no date]].    
Chinese Empire.  5,200,000.  230,000,000.  44.  [[no date]].
Japan.  200,000.  30,000,000. 115.
[[End columnar entries]]

[[lines across sub-columns denote total for each sub-column]]
[[total area in sq. miles]]  16,313,000.  [[total population]]  455,562,068.  [[pop. total per sq. mile]] 28. [[no date for "When numberred"]].  
[[End table section]]

[[Begin table section]]AFRICA.
[[Begin columnar entries - period delimited]]
Morroco (Barbery). 220,000.  8,500,000.  18.
Algeria (Barbery). [[9]]0,000.  [[2,828,881.]]  31.
Tunis (Barbery).  [[58,]]000.  2,[[2]]00,000. [[38.]]
Tripoli, Inc. Bares[[?]] (Barbery).  150,000.  800,000.  5.
[[best guess]]Beled el Jerbi (Barbery).  140,000.  900,000.  6.
[["Barbery" appears after a close-bracket encompassing the above five locations.]]
[[Open-bracket encompasses numerical values for above five locations, followed by close-bracket]]
[[Close bracket encompassing values for above five locations, indicating year "When numberred"]] 1847
Egypt.  180,000.  2,[[925,]]000.  16.
Nubia.  320,000.  [[5]]00,000.  1 1/2.
Abyssinia.  280,000. 3,000,000.  10.
Great Desert.  2, [[600,]]000.  300,000.  1 in 8.
Soudan.  1,[[300,]]000. 10,000,000.  8.
Bergoo, Darfur, &c.  540,000.  1,200,000.  2.
[[best guess]]Senegambia.  360,000.  7,000,000.  20.
Upper Guinea.  [[280,]]000.  5,500,000.  29.
Lower Guinea.  200,000.  4,500,000.  17.
Cape Colony and Natal.  128,000.  400,000.  3.  1850.
Country of the Hottentote.  200,000.  100,000. 1 in 2.
Eastern Africa.  [[000,000]].  3,000,000.  5.
Ethiopia.  3,110,000.  3,000,000.  1.
African Islands.  230,000.  5,100,000. 22
[[End columnar entries]]
[[lines across sub-columns denote total for each sub-column]]
[[total area in sq. miles]]  [[10,936,]]000.  [[total population]]  61,[[604,281]].  [[pop. total per sq. mile]] 5. [[no date for "When numberred"]]. 
[[End table section]]

[[Begin table section]]OCEANIA.
[[Begin sub-section]]Malaysia.
[[Begin columnar entries - period delimited]]
Sumatra (Sunda Islands).  150,000.  3,000,000.  20.  est.
Java (Sunda Islands).  50,000.  9,[[530,781]].  189.  1845.
Borneo (Sunda Islands).  300,000.  3,000,000.  10.  est.
[[Close-bracket encompasses above three locations]]Sunda Islands
Philippine Islands.  120,000.  3,000,000.  25.  " [[Ditto "est."]]
Celebes.  70,000.  2,000,000.  28.  "  [[Ditto "est."]]
Spice Islands, Sooloo Islands, &c.
Timor, Floris, Sumlawa, &c.
[[Close-bracket encompasses above two location lines]]
[[values apply to bracketed locations above]]70,000. 1,000,000.  16.  "  [[Ditto "est."]]
[[End columnar entries]]
[[lines across sub-columns denote total for each sub-column]]
[[total area in sq. miles]]  700,000.  [[total population]]  21,[[590,781]].  [[pop. total per sq. mile]] 28. [[no date for "When numberred"]].
[[End sub-section]]

[[Begin sub-section]]Australaria.
[[Begin columnar entries - period delimited]]
Australia, or New Holland.  3,120,000. *624,000.  1 in 5.  1853 [[1853]]
Tasmania, of Van Diemen's Land.  28,000. [[special character elongated cross as asterisk denoting footnote.]]100,000.  3 1/2.  "  [[Ditto "1853"(?)]]
New Zealand.  95,000.  [[Double vertical asterisks denoting footnote]]145,000.  1 1/2.  "  [[Ditto "1853"(?)]]
New Guinea, New Britain, &c.
New Hebrides and New Caledonia
[[Close-bracket encompasses above two location lines]]
[[Values for bracketed locations above]]
300,000. [[combined value]] 400,000. [[New Guinea, New Britain, &c. value]] 200,000. [[New Hebrides and New Caledonia value]]
[[Close-bracket encompassing above two values]] 2.  est.
[[End columnar entries]]
[[lines across sub-columns denote total for each sub-column]]
[[total area in sq. miles]]  3,500,000.  [[total population]]  1,409,000[[?]].  [[pop. total per sq. mile]] 1 in 2 1/2. [[no date for "When numberred"]].
[[End sub-section]]

[[Begin sub-section]]Polynesia.
Sandwich Islands.  6,000.  78,487[[?]].  12.  1853.
[[Begin bracketed grouping of locations]]
Society and Georgian Islands.  [[see combined value below]].  16,581.  [[see combined value below]]  [[est.]]
Ladrone Islands.  [[see combined value below]].  10,000.  [[see combined value below]]  [[est.]]
Caroline Islands.  [[see combined value below]].  20,000.  [[see combined value below]]  [[est.]]
Central Archipelago.  [[see combined value below]].  12,000.  [[see combined value below]]  [[est.]]
Washington and Marquesas Isl's.  [[see combined value below]].  18,000.  [[see combined value below]]  [[est.]]
Cook's, Austral, Paumeta Isl, &c.  [[see combined value below]].  17,000.  [[see combined value below]]  [[est.]]
Navigator's Islands.  [[see combined value below]].  100,000.  [[see combined value below]]  [[est.]]
Vavon Habeal, and Tonga Isl's.  [[see combined value below]].  18,000.  [[see combined value below]]  [[est.]]
Fejee Islands.  [[see combined value below]].  107,000.  [[see combined value below]]  [[est.]]
The remaining groups and islands.  [[see combined value below]].  61,504.  [[see combined value below]]  [[est.]]
[[End bracketed grouping of locations]]
[["Area in sq. miles" combined value for bracketed group above]] 144,000.
[["Pop. to sq. mile" combined value for bracketed group above]]  2 1/2.
[["When numberred" value for bracketed group above]] est.
[[End columnar entries]]
[[lines across sub-columns denote total for each sub-column]]
[[total area in sq. miles]]  160,000.  [[total population]]  445,641[[?]].  [[pop. total per sq. mile]] 3. [[no date for "When numberred"]].
[[End sub-section]]
[[End table section]]
[[line across second column]]
[[Footnotes]]* British, 520,000[[?]].  [[special character elongated cross]] Wholly British. [[special character double vertical asterisk]]British, 40,000.
[[End table with 5 sub-columns]]

[[Begin table with four sub-columns]]
POPULATION OF THE WORLD
[[line across entire second column]]
[[sub-columns 2-4 headers]] Area in square miles.
Population.
Pop. to sq. mile.
[[Begin columnar entries - period delimited]]
America.  14,491,000.  66,071,000.  4.
Europe.  3,757,000.  305,365,000[[?]].  70.
Asia.  116,313,000.  455,502,000[[?]]. 28.
Africa.  10,536,000[[?]].  61,604,000[[?]].  5.
Oceania.  4,500,000.  23,485,000[[?]].  5[[?]].
[[lines across sub-columns 2-4 denote total for each sub-column]]
[[total Area in square miles]]  49,997,000.  [[total Population]]  801,077,000.  [[total Pop. to sq. mile]] 17.
[[End table with four columns]]
[[line across entire second column]]

[[Begin table with four sub-columns]]
AUSTRIAN EMPIRE, IN DETAIL.
[[sub-columns 2-4 headers: Area in square miles.  Population. Pop. to sq. mile. -- not repeated in this subsection of the table.]]
[[Begin columnar entries - period delimited]]
[[open-bracket label, printed sideways]]GER. PROV.
[[Begin bracketed grouping]]
[[special character: open-bracket]]
Austria Proper.  18,052[[?]].  2,277,524[[?]].  152[[?]].
Styria.  8,070.  953,744[[?]].  113.
Tyrol.  10,900.  1,252,831[[?]].  117.
Bohemia.  20,293[[?]].  4,279,189[[?]].  211.
Morovia and Silesia.  10,239[[?]].  2,223,729[[?]].  208.
[[End bracketed grouping]]
Hungary, Croatia, and Sclavonia.  89,040.  12,079,334[[?]].  137.
Military Frontier.  15,479[[?]].  1,220,503[[?]].  25[[?]].
Translyvania.  21,390.  2,108,406.  79.
Dalmatia.  5,907[[?]].  401,540[[?]].  147.
Galicia.  33,538[[?]].  4,910,029[[?]]  274.
[[While the open bracket stops at Moravia..., all of the above locations are indented to same depth.]]
[[Flush with left column border]]Lombardy and Venlee.  17,511.  4,903,289.  89.
[[lines across sub-columns 2-4 denote total for each sub-column]]
[[total Area in square miles]]  287,830[[?]].  [[total Population]]  37,383,416[[?]].  [[total Pop. to sq. mile]] 145.
[[End table with four columns]]
[[line across entire second column]]

[[Begin footnote section of second column]]
for South America and the Other Great Divisions.  Also for the World.  Which is the largest division of the Austrian empire?  Most populous?  Repeat these questions for the Russian, British, and Chinese empires.
  Which is the largest empire?  The second in extent?  The third?
[[End footnote section of second column.]]
[[end second column]]

[[third column, right side of the page]]
Table of Extent and Population continued.
[[line across column]]
[[Begin table with four sub-columns]]
RUSSIAN EMPIRE, IN DETAIL.
[[line across column]]
[[Sub-columns 2-4 headers]]Area in square miles. Population. Pop. to square mile. 
[[Begin columnar entries - period delimited]]
Russia in Europe.  2,120,307.  60,708,502.  29.
Siberia {Russia in Asia}. 5,261,000.  2,937,066[[?]].  1 to 2.
Georgia &c. {Russia in Asia}.  75,000.  1,625,000.  22.
Russian America.  450,000.  61,000.  1 in 8.
[[lines across sub-columns 2-4 denote totals for each column]]
[[Area in square miles]] 7,906,267[[?]] [[Population]] 65,221,508[[?]]. [[Pop. to square mile]] 8.
[[End columnar entries]]
[[line across entire third column]]

[[Continue table in four-column format without column headers for sub-columns 2-4]]
BRITISH EMPIRE, IN DETAIL
[[Begin columnar entries - period delimited]]
Great Britain and Ireland.  118,948.  27,619,866.  232.
Ionian Isles, Malta, Gibraltar, &c.  1,192.  354,797.  297.
British North America.  2,816,760.  2,290,363.  4 in 5.
West Indies and Colonies in Gulana.  90,445.  930,430.  10.
Cape Colony, Natal, &c.  128,000.  400,000.  3.
British India.  1,113,812[[?]]  127,778,981.  112.
Ceylon.  24,664.  1,421,661.  58. 
Australian Colonies and New Zeal'd.  3,243,000.  809,000.  1 in 3. 
[[lines across sub-columns 2-4 denote totals for each column]]
[[Area in square miles]] 7,566,821[[?]] [[Population]] 161,665,008. [[Pop. to square mile]] 21.
[[End columnar entries]]
[[line across entire third column]]

[[Continue table in four-column format without column headers for sub-columns 2-4]]
GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, IN 1851
[[Begin columnar entries - period delimited]]
              { England.  50,387.  16,734,647.  332.
Great Britain { Scotland.  28,895.  2,870,784.  99.
              { Wales.  7,425.  1,188,121.  160.
Ireland.  31,874.  6,515,794.  204.
{Army and Navy, and merchant
{seamen, afloat. [[no value]].  167,004.  [[no value]].
Channel Islands.  266.  142,916.  390.
[[lines across sub-columns 2-4 denote totals for each column]]
[[Area in square miles]] 118,938. [[Population]] 27,619,865. [[Pop. to square mile]] 232.
[[End columnar entries]]
[[line across entire third column]]

[[Continue table in four-column format without column headers for sub-columns 2-4]]
BRITISH AMERICA, IN DETAIL
[[Begin columnar entries - period delimited]]
New Britain.  2,358,000.  63,930.  1 to 36. 
Canada East.  206,800.  890,261.  4.
Canada West.  143,760.  952,004.  5 1/8.
New Brunswick....25,000.  123,800[[?]].  8.
Nova Scotia and Cape Breton Island.  18,800.  276,117.  15.
Prince Edward's Island.  2,200.  62,675.  26.
Newfoundland.  46,500.  101,606.  2. 
Belize or British Honduras.  15,800.  10,800.  2 in 3.
[[lines across sub-columns 2-4 denote totals for each column]]
[[Area in square miles]] 2,816,700. [[Population]] 2,551,000. [[Pop. to square mile]] 1.
[[End columnar entries]]
[[line across entire third column]]

[[Continue table in four-column format without column headers for sub-columns 2-4]]
CHINESE EMPIRE, IN DETAIL
[[Begin columnar entries - period delimited]]
China.  1,640,000.  204,000,000.  124.
Tibet,&c.  600,000.  8,000,000.  13.
Corea.  48,000.  7,000,000.  145.
Little Eucharia.  282,600.  4,000,000.  17.
Soongariz.  200,000.  2,000,000.  10.
Mongolia.  1,200,000.  2,000,000.  [[1 1/2 ?]].
Mantchooria.  1,2300,000.  3,000,000.  [[2 1/4?]]
[[lines across sub-columns 2-4 denote totals for each column]]
[[Area in square miles]] 5,2000,000. [[Population]] 230,000,000. [[Pop. to square mile]] 44.
[[End columnar entries]]
[[line across entire third column]]

[[Continue table in four-column format without column headers for sub-columns 2-4]]
ITALY, IN DETAIL
[[Begin columnar entries - period delimited]]
Lombardy and Venice.  17,511.  4,803,285.  274.
Sardinia.  28,820.  4,916,687.  170.
Tuscany and Lucca.  8,712.  1,761,140.  802.
States of the Church.  17,048.  2,008,115.  170.
Naples, or The Two Sicilies.  41,521.  8,681,289.  206.
Parma.  2,184.  497,313.  227.
Modena.  2,073.  536,458.  283.
San Marino.  21.  7,600.  362.
Monaco.  50.  7,000.  140.
[[lines across sub-columns 2-4 denote totals for each column]]
[[Area in square miles]] 117,950. [[Population]] 24,068,317. [[Pop. to square mile]] 211.
[[End columnar entries]]
[[line across entire third column]]
[[End table in four-column format]]

[[Begin table in five column format]]
CIVIL AND POLITICAL STATISTICS,
Table showing the Military and Naval Power, with the Public Debt, of the principal civilized States.

States. Number of Army. Vessels in Navy. No. of Guns in Navy. Amount of Public Debt.
[[5 columns across]]
[[Begin columnar entries - period delimited]]
Russia.  784,982.  175.  7,660.  $733,000,000.
Gr. Brit. and Irel'nd.  138,709.  678.  18,000.  3,700,000,000.
France.  502,715.  328.  8,000.  1,330,000,000.
Denmark.  24,823.  33.  1,120.  80,000,000.
Netherlands.  56,000.  125.  2,500.  731,000,000.
Belgium.  94,900.  5.  26.  165,000,000.
Austria.  414,000.  65.  510.  479,100,000.
Prussia.  137,000.  47.  114.  180,000,000.
Bavaria.  53,500. [[no value]]. [[no value]].  73,000,000.
Sweden and Norw'y.  62,970.  306.  2,900.  1,500,000.
Spain.  160,000.  50.  721.  1,300,000,000.
Portugal.  38,000. 36. 700. 160,000,000.
Sardinia.  38,000. 60. 900. 120,000,000.
Tuscany.  5,500.  5.  434.  [[no value]].
States of the Ch.  17,000. 3.  [[no value]].  34,000,000.
Naples.  48,882.  60 [[no value]].  16,060,000.
Greece.  4,000.  33. [[no value]]. 10,000,000.
Turkey.  200,000.  74.  4,000.  36,000,000.
Brazil.  17,095.  67.  359.  68,000,000.
Mexico.  19,000.  10.  [[no value]].  102,550,000.
United States.  10,344.  75.  2,045.  52,312,980.
[[End columnar entries]]
[[End table]]
[[line across page denotes footnoted section below]]
Which is the largest in population? The second? The third, &c.?
Which European State has the largest army? The largest navy in ships and guns? The greatest debt? The second? The third, &c.? Repeat these questions for the American States.
[[End page]]

Transcription Notes:
To indicate handwritten text in typewritten page SI instructions state to transcribe ^[[text]] Page 1 1. Madagascar square miles in column 1, difficult to read, but might be 225,000 which is closer to the currently known area. I made changes from 335,000 to 225,000 2. Corrected error second column first sentence of The Ocean section, changing 'pf' to 'of' 3. Corrected error second column first sentence The Atlantic Ocean, 'spade' to 'space'. 4. Rivers third column. Changed Amazon river total from 5600 to 3600. Next Page 5. Corrected spelling for 'numbered' 6. South America pops section Ecuador corrected; verified totals by summing sq miles column. Population does not match total, but best efforts were done to determine numbers, 22,310 too high based on what we have transcribed. 7. Uruguay was misspelled Europe table 8. Netherlands numbers changed, checked against pop sq mile to verify. 9. Belgium numbers changed, checked against pop sq mile to verify. ---- stopped here for the night,

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