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[[underlined]] APPENDIX II.  THE RISE OF THE YANGTZE RIVER STATES. [[/underlined]]

[[underlined]] Significance of the Phenomenon. [[/underlined]]
One of the most significant facts connected with the early cultural and political development of China is the way in which great monarchical states arose along the Yangtze River, one after another, at successively later times the farther we descend that vast stream (see map, fig. 60).
This movement had already begun before the end of the 2nd millennium B.C., and it continued through most of the earlier half of the one that followed.
   As long as the peoples of the Yangtze valley remained without a knowledge of metals and depended mainly for food upon what they could grow in clearings in the jungle, there could be no great growth of population nor any founding of large organized communities. These phenomena only became possible---and inevitable---with the introduction of irrigated rice and of bronze weapons.
   The advent of the food-plant just named in the Yangtze valley, a monsoon region ([[underlined]] cf. [[/underlined]] page 146 and footnote 147-a) peculiarly adapted to its cultivation, led to a vast increase in population.[[superscript]] (1) [[/superscript]] Moreover, since cereals stand storing well, the accumulation of reserve capital now became
        The diffusion of rice culture in the Old World occurred chiefly in prehistoric times, and thus presents an interesting parallel to the way in which the growing of maize spread over much of the New World during the pre-Columbian period.
possible.  The way was thus opened for the formation of great centralized
     The Chinese character [[underlined]] liang [[/underlined]] 糧, "grain", bears the secondary meaning of "taxes", and also that of "rations". Similarly, [[underlined]] hsü [[/underlined]]糈, "fine rice", has come to signify "official salary" likewise. Many other instances of the same sort might easily be adduced. 
  Salaries and incomes were long paid in rice in southeastern Asia; in Japan, for instance, the practice continued, nominally at least, until within living memory.

Transcription Notes:
page number is cut off pls add the chinese characters "liang" and "hsü" which i cannot find online and procure in my keyboard This is what I found for liang: 粮 ------------------ I filled in both missing Chinese characters.