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a certain position is a "function" of a form. A nominative substantive expression is any Eng. expression which can be combined with a finite verb expression so that the resulting phrase is an actor - action phrase; a finite verb expr. is any Eng. expr. which can be combined with a nominative substantive expression with the same result. Finite vb. exprs. have no other function; but nom. subs. expr. have some other functions - they appear as predicate complements & in mere naming (John Smith, Pharmacist) (b) a 2[[superscript]] nd [[/superscript]] feature of Eng. actor - action constr. is "order" - normal type, yes - or - no questions, auxiliaries, the negative (with adv. [[underlined]] not [[/underlined]] and the emphatic with contrastive intonation) interrogative expressions like who, when, with whom, [[/strikethrough]] etc. [[/strikethrough]] why, etc. If the interrog. expr. is the actor, the order is normal. But if not, the interrog. expr. precedes the actor & the finite vb. is an auxiliary: [[underlined]] Why did John run away [[/underlined]]? Another type of order [[strikethrough]] is caused by [[/strikethrough]] [[^insert]]occurs when [[/^insert]]certain adverbial expressions precede the actor - [[^insert]]the [[/^insert]] Therein [[^insert]]type, [[/^insert]] then, (away ran John, [[circled]] c [[/circled]] a 3 [[superscript]] rd [[/superscript]] feature which often characterizes constructions is "modification". An expression has modification when its phonemic form is dif. in a partic. constr. from the form which it has in isolation. In Eng. this feature is accompanied (d) by a 4 [[superscript]] th [[/superscript]] - "modulation" - i.e. the particular junctural & accentual structure of the form. In [[underlined]] John's run away, has [[/underlined]] > z (modification) & lacks the loud stress which belongs to every independent word (modulation). Thus "selection", "order", "modification", and "modulation" are the principal features of any construction, though their use differs in dif. langs. & some langs. employ additional features - such as adjunct words & affixes, as members of a syntactic construction. Our possessive suffix /-I2, -2, -3/, as in [[underlined]] John's house [[/underlined]] approaches this character, but differs in being decidedly joined, in a special construction, to the preceding form. Thus, in answer to a question one may hear simply [[underlined]] John's [[/underlined]] - never[[underlined]] 's house [[/underlined]] [[two columns]] [[first column]] we₂ tin₂ du₃-₁ = why (what they did is) we₂ tin₃-₁ = what au = how us₃ tem₁ = when (which time?) [[/first column]] [[vertical line separating columns]] [[second column]] u₁[[marks indicating there should be no space]]sai₃-₁ = where (what side) [[strikethrough]] J [[/strikethrough]] dʒɒn ɑt = John's bar or for emphasis - [[strikethrough]] J [[strikethrough]] dʒɒnî ɑt ἶ = his
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