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[[circled]] 8 [[/circled]] [[perfor]]med relatively rarely in the wild simply because prolonged "close-range" disputes are rare under natural conditions (see above). the Gaping seems to be basically similar to that of Streaked Saltators in form. It is almost confined to actual fights. It may be silent or (less frequently) accompanied by Hoarse Notes. It usually is not combined with other display components (except ordinary locomotory patterns); but once a bird was seen to perform brief Gaping while sitting in a rather hunched posture with Crest-raising and Belly-ruffling at the end of a particularly prolonged dispute (see below). The Gaping of Buff-throated Saltators may be slightly less aggressive than the corresponding pattern of many related species. It often is performed by individuals which appear to be slightly on the defensive. It seems to function as threat. Crest-raising is a simple erection of all the feathers of the crown (see figure____) It is inconspicuous because the crown feathers are not lengthened. It is most frequently performed by itself alone, without any other display. I have seen individuals perform simple Crest-raising of this type as a reaction to the mere approach of other individuals. Occasionally, Crest-raising is accompanied by Belly-ruffling, Gaping, Bowing, Warbles and/or Rattles. Very rarely, there may be a slight trace of Crest-raising (partial erection of the crown feathers) superimposed upon Head-lowered or Bill-up Postures. It is possible that the Crest-raising of Buff-throated Saltators is primarily an expression of escape motivation, like the morphologically similar patterns of many related species. The Head-lowered Posture is not very exaggerated in form, and may be only slightly ritualized. The head is brought down to shoulder level, while the bill points straight forward. This is usually, but not always, accompanied by Lateral Fluffing (see figure___). Head-lowered Postures may
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