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Saturday Oct 27th 1860

When I made my appearance on deck, this morning ^[[(VI o'clk)]], the wind was gently coming from the N. W.  In less than 15 minutes it blowed strong.  The Ther stood at 15[[degree symbol]] at first & in two hours at 12[[degree symbol]].  At 4 o'clk A.M. by the report of one of the men, the stars were out.  ^[[VII oclk AM]] At & since VI ^[[AM]] Cloudy. At VIII sun out.  Then, at X o'clk. [[strikethrough]] It [[/strikethrough]] 10[[degree symbol]] in the sun.  Looking on the waves which are running high, the wind blowing strong (almost a gale) from the N.W. I was struck with the sight of the steam (?) arising therefrom - The sun shining brightly.  The temp. of the sea is 27[[symbol for degrees]] & the air being 10[[symbol for degrees]], of course the vapor arising from the water is at once condensed, therefore visible.  Men all in to-day.  The Boat's crew of "Mgan" including himself came aboard this morning for their breakfast.  After standing around awhile, they departed without any, ^[[all]] cursing the race of White Man in particular.  The fact is Mgan is independent & so of his crew.  Yesterday they spent the whole day visiting the English vessels & ^[[remaining]] at their ^[[own]] "tupiks" without doing one thing, in way of return for the articles & board they receive from the G.H.  No natives now aboard, save an old lady Esquimaux, An-turg-ung who is [[strikethrough]] sitting [[/strikethrough]] in this cabin busily sewing on a pair of mittens she is making. I have just been watching her progress & observing, in general, the instruments & material ^[she]] [[strikethrough]] used [[/strikethrough]] uses.  Of all instruments ^[[ [[strikethrough]] in use [[/strikethrough]] ]] among the Esquimaux ladies (all [[underlined]] ladies [[/underlined]] work!) none are ^[[used for]] more varied ^[[useful]] purposes than the "OoD-loo",the Woman's Knife.  Here, I have placed An-tung-ung's "Ood-loo" on this sheet & run my ^[[pencil]] around it ^[[then tracing with pen]] so that now we have a complete profile View of this identical tool.  This is used [[strikethrough]] in [[/strikethrough]] for cutting out dresses (^[[for]] all the purposes of shears and Scissors ^[[of Civilization]], for skinning Seals, Rein-deer &  the various fowl - for cutting up their food etc etc. ^[[It is their desert knife - & general eating knife]].  It is really astonishing with what skill they use this instrument in cutting out skin patterns for Boots, Stockings mittens, Dresses etc.  The Ood-loo is so held that the cutting is done by moving [[strikethrough]] this [[/strikethrough]] it alternate up & down on ^[[the]] [[strikethrough]] u [[/strikethrough]] centre of the circle of Edge.  I am confident no one - no tailor of the states ^[[with his shears]] could equal some of these Esquimaux ^[[with the]] Oodloo in cutting skin dresses.

[[image of an Eskimo knife label with:     Fac-Simile of An-tung-ung's "Ood-luv" with various parts marked  A B C & D]]


[[in left margin boxed]]
[[circled]] A [[/circled]] Thin Sawplate (Steel)
[[circled] ]B [[/circled]] Iron Shank.
C. Wood handle
[[circled]] D [[/circled]] Bevel to an edge}
(Only on one side.}
Civilization material-
Esquimaux made!
[[/left margin boxed]]


Av-tung-ung sits on the floor before me - or rather she [[underlined]] sits on one limb [[/underlined]] bent under her while the other is placed before her so that her table consists of her Knee  Here she has been industriously sewing all the Morning without moving her position more than twice.  I noticed quite a piece of Whalebone sticking up out ^[[of one]] of her * pockets.  Pushing my Inquiries a little in the advance of what my courage, or modesty, would admit of at home, where all in accordance to Etiquette (Societies rules), I found that [[underline]] "Whale-bone stays" [[/underline]] are used by these Northern ^[[ladies]] [[underline]] to prop up the legs of their Stockings! [[/underline]] I was allowed [[strikethrough]] the [[/strikethrough]] ^[[a sight-]] just a glimpse- of the practical [[strikethrough]] use [[/strikethrough]] ^[[application]] of this decidedly novel (to me) idea.  I am assured, however, this ^that ^ [[strikethrough]] is [[/strikethrough]] custom is no new fangled fashion! [[strikethrough]] but [[/strikethrough]] It has been in use among this people ^[[from]] [[strikethrough]] for [[/srikethrough]] time immemorial!
The Barometer, this noon, 29.287 Ther. 6[[symbol for degrees]]!  Wind N.W. & blowing a gale!  Coldest of the Season as yet!
[[line across page]]
* The Esquimaux ladies have 4 pockets-the spaces between [[strikethrough]] inch ^the^[[underline]] Stockings & Boots - 2 1 [[/underline]] the [[underline]] hood [[/underline]] 3 - & the [[underline]] Mouth! [[/underline]] 4 
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