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July 7, 1988 


S 9059

Organization, and Priorities Act of 1976. The Science Act was passed 12 years ago because it was clear that science and technology were playing an increasingly important role in our society and that there was a need for a national science and technology policy.[[vertical line in the margin]] Since 1976, we have had to face problems like acid rain, nuclear waste disposal, depletion of the ozone layer, the decline of American competitiveness in the world marketplace, and other technological challenges. We have learned that many of these complex problems are multidisciplinary and can only be solved by a well-coordinated, long-term effort involving several Federal agencies. 
    This bill will provide a mechanism for planning such long term efforts. It provides authority to the  Federal Coordinating Council of Science, Engineering, and Technology, also known as FCCSET, for developing long-range plans for research efforts involving more than two Federal agencies. FCCSET was established by the National Science and Technology Policy, Organization, and Priorities Act of 1976. It is located in the Executive Office of the President and consists of representatives of a dozen Federal agencies involved in scientific research, with the Director of Office Science and Technology policy serving as chairman. This bill reinforces FCCSET's existing responsibilities for coordinating the various agencies' research efforts in areas of national concern.
  In addition, the legislation goes on to give FCCSET specific responsibility for coordinating the Federal research on global change. [[asterisk in left margin]] The bill would require FCCSET to develop a 10 year national global change research plan. In carrying out that responsibility, FCCSET would:
[[asterisk]] Establish national goals and priorities for global change research, working with the  National Research Council and other research groups;
  Define the roles of each agency and department in implementing the plan by building on their existing missions and responsibilities; 
  Review each agency budget estimate in the context of national goals, using a budget crosscut to be provided by OMB; and
 Submit an annual report to Congress, regarding progress in implementing the national research plan. 
 In the last decade, we have started to realize that human activities have had an impact on a global scale. As the world population grows, the damage done to our global habitat is likely to increase. Our understanding of how our planet works and how man's activities are affecting it is incomplete. Despite an active research program, many large uncertainties remain. This bill should help us decrease some of those uncertainties. I hope that my fellow Senators will join me in supporting this bill.

 Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the full text of the bill be printed following my statement.
 There being no objection, the bill was ordered to be printed in the Record as follows:
S. 2614
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled. That this Act may be cited as the "National Science and Technology Policy Amendments of 1988". 
 Sec. 2. Section 102(a)(6) of the National Science and Technology Policy, Organization, and Priorities Act of 1976 (42 U.S.C. 6602(a)(6)) is amended to read as follows:
 "(6) The development and coordination of long-range, interagency research plans to support policy decisions regarding identified national and international concerns, and for which a sustained and coordinated commitment to improving scientific understanding will be required.".
 SEC.3. Section 401 of the National Science and Technology Policy, Organization, and Priorities Act of 1976 (42 U.S.C. 6651) is amended- 
 (1) by redesigning subsections (f), (g), and (h) as subsections (g), (h), and (i), respectively; 
 (2) by inserting immediately after subsection (3) the following:
 "(f) The Council may be assigned responsibility for developing long-range and coordinated plans for scientific and technical research which involve the participation of more than two Federal agencies. Such plans shall-
 "(1) identify research approaches and priorities which most effectively advance scientific understanding and provide a basis for policy decisions;
 "(2) provide for effective cooperation and coordination of research among Federal agencies; and
 "(3) encourage domestic and, as appropriate, international cooperation among government, industry, and university scientists", and
 (3) in subsection (i), as so redesigned, by inserting "developing interagency plans," immediately after "purpose of".
 Sec. 4. The National Science and Technology Policy, Organization, and Priorities Act of 1976 (42 U.S.C. 6601 et seq.) is amended by adding at the end thereof the following new Title: 
               "SHORT TITLE
"Sec. 601. This title may be cited as the 'National Global Change Research Act of 1988'.
                 "FINDINGS AND PURPOSE
  "Sec. 602. (a) Congress finds and declares the following:
  "(1) Industrial, agricultural, and other human activities, coupled with an expanding world population, are contributing to processes of global change that may significantly alter our habitat within a few human generations. 
  "(2) Such human-induced changes may lead to significant global warming and the depletion of stratospheric ozone, and thus have the potential to alter world climate patterns, increase global sea levels, and reduce the ability of the atmosphere to screen out harmful ultraviolet radiation. Over the next century, the consequences could seriously and adversely affect world agricultural and marine production, coastal habitability, regional economic well-being, human health, and biological diversity. 

"(3) Development of effective policies to mitigate and cope with human-induced global changes will rely on greatly improved scientific understanding of global environmental processes and on our ability to distinguish between the effects of human activities on one hand and the results of natural change on the other. 
 "(4) New developments in interdisciplinary earth sciences, global observing systems, and computing technology make possible significant advances in the scientific understanding and prediction of these global changes and their effects. 
 "(5) Efforts are ongoing in several Federal agencies which could contribute to a well-defined and coordinated national program of research, monitoring, assessment, and prediction.
 "(6) The United States, as a world leader in earth system science, should continue to provide leadership in developing and implementing an international global change research program.
 "(b)  It is the purpose of Congress in this title to provide for a national global change research plan which when implemented will assist the Nation and the world to understand, assess, and respond to human-induced and natural processes of global change.  

 "Sec. 603. (a)(1) The President, through the Council, shall develop a National Global Change Research Plan (hereafter in this title referred to as the 'Plan') in accordance with section 401 (f) of this Act and the provisions, findings, and purpose of this title. Consistent with the responsibilities set forth under subsection (d) of this section, the Plan shall contain recommendations for a 10-year national research effort, to be submitted to Congress within one-year after the date of enactment of this title and to be revised at least once every three years thereafter. 
 "(2) The Plan shall-
 "(A) establish the goals and priorities for Federal global change research for the 10-year period beginning in the year the Plan (or revised Plan) is submitted;
 "(B) set forth the role of each Federal agency and department in implementing the Plan;
 "(C) describe the levels of Federal funding and specific activities, including research activities, data collection and analysis requirements, participation in international research efforts, and information management, required to achieve such goals and priorities; and 
 "(D) consider and utilize, as appropriate, reports and studies conducted by Federal agencies and departments, the National Research Council, or other entities.
[[partial box right margin "(3) The Plan shall address, where appropriate, the relevant programs and activities of the following Federal agencies and departments:
 "(A) the Department of Commerce, particularly the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration:
 "(B) the National Science Foundation;
 "(C) the National Aeronautics and Space Administration;
 "(D) the Department of Interior, particularly the United States Geological Survey;
 "(E) the Department of Energy;
 "(F) the Department of Agriculture;
 "(G) the Environmental Protection Agency;
 "(H) the Department of Defense, particularly the Department of the Navy; and
 "(I) such other research agencies and departments as the President or the Chairman of the Council considers appropriate.[[/partial box right margin]]
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