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[[page number]] 20 [[/page number]] [[pencil]] Jamaica 19. [[/pencil]] mountain-building monuments. The White Limestone Series is third. It is over 2000 feet in thickness and covers three-fourths of the surface of the island. They are foraminiferal in origin and are said to have been laid down in very deep water. Drainage in the white limestone areas is largely effected by underground streams that flow through fissures and sink-holes into caverns and subterranean tunnels. The Cockpit Country is so called from the pits and hollows common there. The Coastal Series is fourth. (The White Limestone Series is Upper Eocene and Oligocene). It is Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene. Included are white and buff marls and limestones, soft sandstones, loose sands, coarse gravels, and conglomerates, also calcareous shales (rich in Miocene fossils). The chief topographical features are (1) the interior mountain masses (Blue Mts., east-west in eastern third; Clarendon & Jerusalem Mts. farther west; together forming a central mountain chain with lateral ridges, particularly to the south); (2) an elevated limestone plateau; (3) the coastal cliffs; and (4) a series of low, flat, coastal plains. The plateau region occupies over four-fifths of the area, rising to a height of 300 feet. The [[end page]] [[start page]] [[page number]] 21 [[/page number]] mountains attain over 7000 feet. The coastal cliffs show several terraces or benches, at elevations ranging between 200 and 2100 feet. The geologic series seems to be as follows: [[underline]] Recent. [[/underline]] I. Recent Alluvial Formation Recent River Alluvium, Raised Coral Reefs, etc. [[underline]] Pleistocene. [[/underline]] II. Coastal Series (1) Kingston Formation (Old Alluvium) [[underline]] Pliocene. [[/underline]] (2) Manchioneal Beds (Marls & Fossiliferous limestones, some coral, [[three periods forming shape of a triangle?]] shallow water. [[underline]] Miocene. [[/underline]] (3) Buff Bay Beds (4) Bowden Beds. (Calc. shales & marls; fossilif.) [[underline]] Oligocene. [[/underline]] III. White Limestones Series (Oceanic) (1) Cobre Beds (Brecciated limestones & marls). (2) Moneague Beds (Massive white limestone). [[underline]] Up. Eocene. [[/underline]] (3) Montpelier Beds (Chalky ls. & white marls). [[underline]] Mid. Eocene. [[/underline]] IV. Blue Mountain Series. (1) Cambridge Beds (yellow ls., richly fossilif.) [[underline]] Low. Eocene. [[/underline]] (2) Richmond Beds (dark calcareous shales). [[underline]] Up. Cretaceous. [[/underline]] (3) Conglomerates, Tuffs, & Limestones [[double underline]] Paleozoic. [[/double underline]] V. Basement Series. (1) Igneous Rocks Granophyres & serpentine. (2) Metamorphic Rocks (Cretaceous metamorph.) Schists, amphibolites, & marbles.
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